* This is a re-post of an article I wrote for my blog Q-Niverse back in May of 2013:
What is a “scalar wave” exactly? Scalar waves (hereafter SW)are often likened to "longitudinal" waves. Other theorists have modeled them as virtual pressure waves existing in subquantum "potentials". The term “scalar” is often used because the hypothetical source of these waves is thought to be a "scalar field" of some kind. This means it possesses magnitude but not direction -- similar to the Higgs Field for example.
There is nothing particularly controversial about longitudinal waves (hereafter LW) in general. They are a ubiquitous and well-acknowledged phenomenon in nature. Sound waves that travel through the atmosphere (or underwater) are longitudinal; as are plasma waves propagating through space (aka "Birkeland currents"). Longitudinal waves moving through the Earth's interior are known as "telluric currents". They can all be thought of as pressure waves of sorts. Continue reading →
This technology is not home free, in that the over-unity self-powering loop has not been closed. Instead, what is claimed is that the output energy is greater than the input energy. The question is, how is the output energy measured?
In electrical systems, the power (energy) is equal to the voltage () times current ():
Therefore if one measures a high output voltage and high output current and multiplies them together to derive a calculated power which is greater than the input power, it is then tempting to claim over-unity has been achieved. However, with alternating currents, as is the case with the QEG, there is a critical third variable, which is the phase difference between the current and voltage:
The phase between voltage and current determines whether there is usable power.
Since both the current and voltage are oscillating in an alternating current, it is important that they be sufficiently synchronized in order to have usable energy. The phase is an indicator of the degree of synchronicity. Whether or not the QEG satisfies this requirement is still an open question.
Updated May 21, 2014
A few days ago HopeGirl posted the video
which report the following numbers:
Output voltage = 1.9 kV
Output current = 1 Amp
Input power = 655 Watts
James commented that the output measurements are "peak readings".
Taking into consideration the phase between output voltage and current, the formula, assuming a perfect sine wave for the alternating voltage and current, is
In the best case, in which output voltage and current are in-phase, and then we have the efficiency = which is over-unity.
In the worst case, in which the output voltage and current are out of phase by , then in which case there is no real energy output.
We need to know the relative phase between the output voltage and current before the claim of over-unity is made.